Short Essay on Distribution of Population in India


The distribution of population in India depends mainly physical features, climate conditions, means of communication, development of agriculture and industries etc.

India is primarily an agricultural country and more than 70% per cent of the people living in India depend on agriculture. As agriculture is the main occupation of 82% of the Indian people live in rural areas. The coastal plains and the Ganga plain where facilities for agriculture are quite excellent because of level land, fertile soil and suitable climate are very thickly populated areas. So east U.P., North Bihar and West Bengal which form the major part of the Ganga plain have a very high density of population. The average density of population in West Bengal is 904 km2 and that in Kerala is 819/km2.


People in India do not find easy means of earning a living in the mountains, deserts and plateaus. The mountain regions of the north have therefore, a very low density of population. In Rajasthan desert density is also very low—only 10/km2. Large areas of the plateau regions are also unsuitable for human habitation.

There are a few towns and cities in India and only 18% of the people live there. With the development of large-scale industries, many industrial towns have grown up in different parts of India. So in recent years, the density of population has increased in the areas where industries have been set up. Industrial towns like Durgapur, Kulti, Burnpur, Batanagar, etc. in West Ben­gal are densely populated. Kolkata, Bombay, Madras, etc. are business cen­ters. The density of population in those centers is very high. Mining centers like Raniganj. Maria, etc. have also a high density of population.

Completion of some multipurpose projects, irrigation facilities, development of agriculture and various types of industries etc. have brought about a change in the density of population in different parts of India

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