Introduction: Subhas Chandra Bose (also spelled Subhash Chandra Bose), the great national hero of Bengal was born in Cuttack, Orissa (now Odisha) on 23rd January, 1897. He was a patriotic and selfless leader of India, popularly known for forming the Indian National Party (INA). His father Janakinath Bose was an eminent pleader. His mother was Prabhabati Devi.
Education: In his boyhood Subhas Chandra received his education from Ravenshaw Collegiate School of Cuttack. Subhas Chandra Bose stood second in the entrance examination in 1913, and then he came to Kolkata and was admitted to Presidency College.
During his childhood, he was highly inspired by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda. He had deep love for his country and his compatriots. One day, a professor passed on an anti-indian remark, which the students of Bengal felt to be abusive. The students under the leadership of Subhas Chandra Bose protested against this abuse. As a result Subhas was rusticated from the college.
After this unpleasant incident, Subhas Chandra was admitted to Scottish Church College at the initiative and effort of Sir Ashutosh Mukhopadhyay and he passed Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) examination with honors in philosophy from that college. When he was a student of Master of Arts (M.A.), his father advised him to leave for England to appear in the Indian Civil Service (ICS) examination. And, studying for nine months only he stood fourth in that examination.
Early Career: After completion of ICS examination, he was selected for a job. But, he was not happy to serve under the British. The burning spirit of patriotism motivated him not to serve under the foreign government. In 1921, he resigned from the job and went ahead in the service of the nation. During that time the first Non-co-operation movement had broken out in India.
Patriotic Career: When he reached Calcutta (now Kolkata), he devoted himself to the cause of national independence. He found that the Non-cooperation movement, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, was active all over the country. Subhas refused to accept the assignment given by the British government and dedicated himself at the call of his motherland.
The sacrifice and devotion of Chittaranjan Das for the cause of the country immediately attracted his mind. He accepted Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das as his political preceptor and became his lietenant.
At that time, Chittaranjan Das was running a newspaper called “Forward”. Accepting the proposal of Chittaranjan Das, he became an editor of the newspaper. In 1924, he became the Mayor of Kolkata.
Subhash Chandra Bose was imprisoned several times along with Chittaranjan Das who died after his release in 1925. Subhash then became such a leader that he was most dreaded by the British Government. He preached for taking direct action against the foreign rulers to attain complete independence.
In 1938, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose became the President of the Indian National Congress. He was so popular that he was again elected President in 1939 in spite of the opposition. It is believed that he had differences in opinion with other Congress leaders. He later resigned from the post.
Escape from Kolkata: Subhash Chandra Bose decided to form the Forward Block (All India Forward Bloc – AIFB0. Soon, Subhas Chandra became popular among the youths of the country for his burning patriotism. He called the people to join the freedom movement of the country.
The escape of Subhash Chandra Bose from the close careful watch of the British is a remarkable event in Indian History. When he was imprisoned, he was released after a few months for ill health. He was kept under-restrained observation by the police in his house at Elgin Road. However, he managed to flee from the house. This brave and fearless soldier escaped from Kolkata and reached Germany in disguise. After this, he passed over a number of routs by submarine and met Rashbehari Bose.
Formation of Azad Hind Fauz (Indian National Army – INA): To counter the British army, he formed the Indian National Army, famously known as ‘Azad Hind Fauz’. It was done with the help and active co-operation of the great revolutionary Rashbehari Bose and other patriots. INA was a very powerful and large unit of army. It was Subhas Chandra who became the commander-in-chief of this army. The army was composed of both men and women soldiers of all other races. This national army declared war against the British on February, 1944. He called and addressed to the people of the country from Rangoon. ‘Give me blood. I will give you freedom’. For his extraordinary bravery, mental and moral strength to venture he became famous as ‘Netaji’.
They fought shoulder to shoulder to achieve the freedom of their distressed Motherland.
A memorable record: The Azad Hind Fauz (I.N.A) conquered Manipur in Assam. However, further advancement was obstructed due to rains, and shortage of food, arms, equipment, transport and communication facilities. Though, the Azad Hind Fauz (I.N.A) could not plant the Indian National Flag on the Red Ford of Delhi. However, the achievement of the I.N.A is a memorable historical record, which the world can never forget.
Its success: The I.N.A. played the most important role in bringing about the liberation of India from its devastating hands.
Last Days: The details about his last days could not be traced with accuracy. No authentic information regarding the mystery of his disappearance has yet been known, but it is said that he died on an aeroplane accident on 18th August, 1945.
Conclusion: So long the Indian survive, memory of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose will remain imperishable in the sacred and secret hearts of them. His earnest devotion to his Motherland has made him immortal. He is remembered for his qualities of patriotism, sincerity, bravery, hard work, and sense of duty towards the nation. His slogans of ‘Jai Hind’ and ‘Delhi Chalo’ had inspired the youth of India to come forward for the nation.