Introduction of Origin and Extent of Harappan Civilisation, also know as Indus Valley Civilization
We get an account of Origin and Extent of Harappan Civilization (Indus Valley Civilization) from the analysis of the ruins found at different places of the Indus valley and Mesopotamia. There are no written records for Origin and Extent Harappan Civilization.
Origin of Indus Valley Civilization
The archaeologists had to depend on various stray materials and evidences to determine the origin of Harappan Civilization.
The comparative analysis of the ruins found at different places of the Indus valley and Mesopotamia gives us an account of origin and Extent of Harappa Civilization.
Some archaeologists are of opinion that the date of Indus Valley Civilization was between 3250 B.C. and 2750 B.C. But some recent discoveries have led the archaeologists and the historians to advance the timeline of Indus Valley civilization. In their opinion, it was not prior to the period between 2400 B.C. and 1800 B.C. that India and Mesopotamia did come in contact with each other.
Further, documents found at Akkad, (situated in the north-east of ancient Mesopotamia) point to the commercial relations they established With the Indus people. The Indus cities had their highest development in the period between the third and second millennia B.C. India had at that time carried on efficient trade with foreign lands.
Again, a similarity between the earthen containers of Clossus of Crete and those of Harappa has been discovered. This made time scholars assume that Harappan civilization lasted at least till sixteenth century B.C. In other words, the Harappan culture extended over a period between 3000 B.C. and 1600 B.C.
Application of Carbon – 14 method
Recently, the application of ‘Carbon-14’ method has resulted in the determination of 2400 B.C., as the date of Indus civilisation, 1500 B.C. was generally taken to be the date of the decline of Indus Civilisation. But the result of examination through ‘Carbon-14’ method makes scholars assume that 1700 B.C. can be taken as the date of the decline of Indus Civilisation.
The general impression till the early years of the twentieth century was that the beginning of Indian civilisation was to be traced from the Vedic Age. According to some authors, the roots of Hinduism go down to the Vedic Text.
Extent of Indus Valley Civilization
Archaeological excavation of excavation of an ancient Buddhist temple was conducted at Larkana district in Sind. During excavation, archaeologists discovered pre-historic clay-pots and a few pieces of artistic works made of stone. The ruins of a very old civilisation were beneath the ground wherein the actual excavation was being carried on. The name of the place was ‘Mohenjo-Daro’.
Archaeologistsfurther discovered in Harappa the same ruins of the civilisation as were found at Mohenjodaro. Harappa was in the Montgomery district of the Punjab and was 650 kilometers away from Mohenjodaro.
After 1947, governments of India and Pakistan took initiative to conduct excavations in more other places, and discovered relics of the Indus Civilization. It is found that the circumferential extension of the civilisation over the area was 1550 kilometers.
Even special and important ruins similar to those found at the Indus valley have been discovered in places far away from the areas near the river, Indus.
At Rangur, Lothal in Gujarat, and in some other places near the Nerboda, same traces as those at Harappa have been found. It is as if these areas bore witness to the transformation of Harappan civilisation. At Lothal, houses, streets and thorough fares, public baths, sewer systems, harbors far small ships, docks etc. have been unearthed in copies number. These deserve mention along with the relics of Mohenjodaro and Harappa.
At Ruper in north-eastern Punjab, relics similar to those of Mohenjodaro and Harappa especially clay vessels of drivers colour and shape have been found. At places near Bikaner of Rajasthan, a number of articles have been discovered, after excavation of the sandy areas. These bear marks of the Indus culture.
Even in the Gangetic areas, excavations show the remains that can be compared with those found at Harappa.
Recent discovery made at Alamgirhpur near Meerut following excavation is of great significance. Both Mohenjodaro and Harappa are now in Pakistan. It is certain that intensive excavations will result in the collection of more materials.