Major Types of Soil found in India
In the higher regions of the Himalayas, Glaciated rocky soils are found just below the snow line. Below this boulder clay is found. Further south, Podsol type of soil is found.
The great plain of North India has been built up of alluvium brought down by the great rivers. Here the soil is of two kinds:
Old alluvium and
In the northern parts of Punjab, U. P., and Bihar, the soil is old alluvium.
New alluvium is found in those parts where fresh silt is deposited every year. Alluvium soils in India is of three types:
Clayey soil and
The sandy soil has the highest percentage of large grained sand. As water can easily sink through it, it is not suitable for the cultivation of rice. Clayey soil is fine grained, impermeable and can retain water. The deltaic regions have this type of soil. It is good for the cultivation of rice and jute. The grain of loamy soil is intermediate between sand and clay and most suitable for a wider range of crops. In Punjab, Hariyana, U. P., and Bihar this type of soil is found. It is suitable for the production of rabi as well as kharif crops.
In South India river valleys and coastal plains are made up of alluvial soil. Lava soil is found in the north-western part of Deccan. As this soil can retain moisture, it is very suitable for the production of cotton even in a rain shadow area. So it is known as ‘Black Cotton Soil’. Maharashtra, Gujrat and certain parts of Madhya Pradesh have this of soil.
The Red soil which is found in Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh is light red in colour. Laterite soil is found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Chhotanagpur. It is not suitable for cultivation of crops other than millets.