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History of Diamonds in India

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Diamond is unique among gemstones in that it is the hardest substance in the world and its high index of refraction (refractive index 2.417) and dispersion (0.063) gives it brilliance and ‘fire’.
Chemically diamond is carbon. It is transparent like water, but splashes of colour – blue, green, yellow, red come out of cut edges of diamond to create a world of fantasy and brilliance.
Diamond is one of the most beautiful gemstone and that’s why it is so much in demand from time immemorial.
History of Diamonds
According to historians, the early production of diamonds came mainly from India. The world-famous large diamond, such as, the Great Mughal, Kohinoor, Regent, Florentine, Darya-i-Noor, Pigott, Tavernier, Nassak were produced in India.
There is a hearsay that the world-famous diamond ‘Kohinoor’ was found near Masulipatnam along the bank of the Godavari by Karna, the king of the Anga kingdom, about 5000 years ago. It is said that the same diamond found its way to Vikramaditya, the king of the Ujjain kingdom in about 56 A.D. but according to experts on diamond, the ‘Kohinoor’ diamond was discovered in the Kilur mine near Golconda in Andhra Pradesh in 1304. Initially the gemstone weighed about 7983 carats, but became 191 carats after cutting.
It us heard that the ‘Great Mughal’, weighing about 787 carats, was found from the Kolur area. The ‘Hope’ diamond weighed 112 carats, while the ‘Nizam’ diamond, found in Golconda weighed 340 carats. The ‘Pitt’ diamond, found in Patiala weighed 410 carats. It is to be note that the weights of diamonds become much less after cutting.
Diamond is mainly used in two ways.
First, transparent brilliant diamond is used as valuable gems.
Second, translucent and scratched diamonds are used as industrial diamonds in cutting and drilling, as it is the hardest substance (as per Mohs’ scale H-10) on the Earth.
In fact 80 per cent of total diamond productions are used as industrial diamonds. These diamonds are naturally much cheaper in price than the diamonds used as gemstones.

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