Factors Responsible for Uneven Distribution of Population in India



Uneven population distribution is characterized by massive difference in the density of population across various geographical locations.

There is extremely high density of population at some places such as Delhi, Mumbai, etc. Whereas, the state of Arunachal Pradesh has very low population density. Hence, there is uneven distribution of population in India.


Density of population of country depends on two major factors and four minor factors. The factors responsible for the uneven distribution of Population in India are :

Major factors:
Physical Factor: (i) Relief, (ii) Climate, (iii) River systems, (iv) Geographical locations, (v) Soils, (vi) Minerals, (vii) Vegetation.
Non-physical Economic Factors: (i) Agriculture, (ii) Industry, (iii) Transport & Communication.
Minor-Factors: (i) Government policies, (it) Historical factors, (iii) Religion factors, (iv) Political factors.
Physical Factors :

The Physical Factors responsible for Uneven Distribution of Population in India are :

Relief: Relief is a dominant factor in determining the uneven distribution of population in India. Mountains have rugged surface and are covered with thick forest along with harsh climate are not at all suitable for human habitation. However, Great Northern plains providing with suitable climate, level land, fertile soil along with knit transport system, is densely populated.

Climate: Climate of a region is existing pressure upon the human settlement. Western part of Rajasthan is sparsely populated because of extreme climatic condition. The Range of Temperature is very high and rainfall is low here. So it is not suitable for human habitation. Just like the desert region, mountainous regions are also not densely populated because of too much cold climate.

River-Systems: Rivers are providing with drinking water, water for irrigation, industrial water, helping navigation, producing hydro-power and making land fertile by depositing silt. So the river valley of the world is densely populated. Several populated cities such as Patna, Kanpur, New-Delhi, Kolkata, etc are settled at river banks.

Geographical location: Geographical location is an important factor in determining the density of population. Geographical locations that favors development of modern infrastructures attracts more population. Srinagar Valley, Delhi, Pune, Nasik all are well-connected by means of roadways or railways. This central location made them populous.

Soils: Soils are the important factor of agriculture. Since, India is primarily an agricultural country, fertile soil with favorable climate attracts a large number of population. River valleys which are filled with fertile soils are densely populated. Because earning of living is easy here by means of agriculture.


Minerals: Minerals can exercise a considerable impact upon population distribution provided they are exploited. Because of earning facility, a large number of people flock together in and around the mining region. Thus, the Chotonagpur plateau, the Karnataka plateau, etc. are densely populated.

Vegetations: Human settlements respond differently to the varieties of natural vegetation—forests, grasslands, marshes and shrubs. Sheep rearing is profitable to the people of high land covered with grass. Whereas people of coniferous forests are engaged in collecting logs from the forests, because these logs are used as raw materials in paper and paper-pulp, rayon, newsprint, plywood and packing box industries. Hence, there is an employment facilities here.

Non-physical/Economic factors:

The Non-physical factors or economic factors responsible for the uneven distribution of population in India are :

Agriculture: Most of the people of India are engaged in agriculture. Agriculture is directly or indirectly attracting a large number of people. Areas haying fertile soils with irrigation facilities are densely populated. Agro-based industries are also providing employment facilities to a large number of people. Difference in the productivity of land leads to uneven distribution of population.

Industries: Industries are providing better economic support for the Indian masses. Big towns like Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Bangalore, Madras, Kanpur, Ahmedabad, and Mumbai (formerly Bombay) are providing employment facilities to a large number of people as they are industrially developed and well-connected by means of roadways and railways.

Well-developed Transport System: The regions which are well-connected by means of roadways, railways, waterways are densely populated. Transport system has a remarkable impact upon population movement and distribution.


Government Policies: Well-planned Government policy can attract large number of people in a particular region. Facilities provided by the Government can attract a huge population to a region.

Historical factors: Historical factors are also responsible for the concentration population in a region. After partition of India, huge number of people settled in West Bengal.

Religious factors: Religious places like Varanasi, Madura, Mathura, Nabadwip, Puri are densely populated because throughout the ages they are attracting a large number of population.

Political factors: Political factors are also determining the density of population in a particular region. After the shifting of India’s capital from Kolkata to Delhi people from different parts of India have settled here.


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