Extent of the Indus Valley Civilization
Formerly it was believed that the extent of Harappan civilization was confined within only the Indus Valley. The Archaeological Department of the Governments of India and Pakistan have unearthed the relics of Harappan culture at many places outside the Indus Valley.
The discovery of new sites of this civilization has superseded the older theory. The relevant excavations have proved that the extent of the Harappan civilization covered an area of 1550 kilometers from north to south and about 1100 K. M. from west to east. It spread from Sut Kanjo Daro in Baluchistan in the west to Alarngirpore in Mirat district in U. P. and from Rupar in Hariyana to the Gulf of Cambay and the Bhagabar Valley in Gujarat.
The traces of the Harappan civilization have been found also in the Narmada Valley in Deccan. It is expected that further excavations will increase the extent of the Harappan civilization. There are reasons to believe that the Harappans spread their civilizations eastward. The older view that the Harappan culture was exotic and had no capacity to expand within the Indian sub-continent has lost its force due to the discovery of Harappan relics in wide areas of India.
The main centers of the Harappan civilization as revealed by the recent excavations are:
- Mohenjo-Daro in Sind. The town was situated on the bank of the Indus.
- Harappa in Punjab and the town was situated on the bank of the Ravi.
- Kalibangan in Rajasthan situated on the bank of the Gharghara.
- Rupar in Hariyana situated on the bank of the Sutlej.
- Lothal in Gujrat situated on the bank of the Bhagawar River.
- Rangpore in Gujrat.
- The Narmada and the Tapti belt.