Cultivation of Cotton & Jute in India
Jute and Cotton are natural Fibres. India has a major share of cultivation of jute and cotton of the world.
Cultivation of Jute in India
Jute is an important natural fibre. The share of Ganga delta contributes for about 85% of the World-wide Jute cultivation. The Ganga delta region is suitable for Jute cultivation due to the rich fertile alluvium soil and favorable temperature and rainfall.
Jute is a cash crop of hot and moist climate. Bangladesh and India are the two chief jute producing countries. Hot and moist climate is ideal for jute. The climatic condition for Jute Cultivation is mentioned below :
- Temperature: 25°C is ideal for jute cultivation.
- Rainfall: 150 cm to 200 cm rainfall is essential for jute cultivation. Moisture in the wind is necessary.
- Soil: New alluvial or loamy soil or river basin is ideal for jute cultivation.
- Land: Plain land or gentle slope or low land is ideal for jute cultivation. But huge number of cheap labor is required along with irrigation facilities. HYV Seeds like Basudev, Sobajsora etc., plenty of fertilizer are required.
West Bengal is the largest producer of Jute in India followed by Assam, Bihar, Orissa, and Andhra Pradesh stagnant water nearly is needed for retting.
Cultivation of Cotton in India
Cotton is soft pure cellulose fibre. India is one of the largest producers of cotton in the world. India also imports raw cotton for the cotton textile industry. The ideal conditions for the production of cotton are:
- Climate: Cotton grows well in warm and moist climate where summer is long and where there is salinity in the soil.
- Temperature: Cotton grown well in a temperature of 24°C. But cotton bursts out, high temperature is injurious.
- Rainfall: 60-100 cm rainfall is essential for the cultivation of cotton. But rainfall after the cotton comes out of the cocoon in injurious.
- Soil: Loamy soil mixed with lime and potash is good for cotton. Cotton grows well in Black Cotton Soil which is sticky in nature and has water retentive capacity.
- Land: Plain lands or gentle slope lands are good for cotton production. Drainage is necessary for the cultivation of cotton.
The factors for the growth of Cotton in India are
- Large favorable fertile Ganga Delta region,
- Plenty of cheap labor,
- Introduction of insecticide to kill Boll Weevils,
- HYV seeds like Sujata, Bharati.
- Introduction of favorable Fertilizer are good for the production of cotton.
Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, A.P. are the principle cotton producing states in India.