Origin of the Chauhans: The Rajput kings of Chauhan dynasty are believed to belong to Agnivanshi Clan (descendants of the Fire God). The Chauhan Dyansty played a prominent part on the Indian political stage.
Ajayaraja: In the eleventh century the Chauhan dynasty ruled as a local power in the Shakambari region. In the early part of the twelfth century they made a bid for expansion under Ajayaraja who defeated the Paramaras and captured their capital Ujjaini. He also founded the city of Ajmer.
Arnoraja: Arnoraja, the son of Ajayaraja ascended the Chauhan throne in or about 1133 A.D. He defeated an army invaded his kingdom. He had a bitter conflict with the Chalukyas and in the end he acknowledges the suzerainty of Chalukya Jayasimha and married his daughter. But the hostility with the Chalukyas broke out again. Chalukya Kumarapala twice defeated Arnoraja.
Vigraharaja (1158-1163 A.D.): The next important ruler of Chauhan dynasty was Vigraharaja IV who raised the Chauhan Empire to the status of an imperial power by his vast conquests. He probably ruled between 1153 and 1163 A.D. He started his victorious career by conquering from the Chalukyas and the Paramaras a number of small states in Southern Rajputana. But his Northern conquest has given him an undying fame. He conquered Delhi from the Tomaras and took possession of Eastern Punjab. He inflicted defeat on the Muslim ruler of Punjab. The records of his reign give a fair idea of the extent of his kingdom which extended in the north up to the Siwalik Hills and in the south up to Udaipur.
The successors of Vigraharaja: After Vigraharaja, two rulers Prithviraj II and Somesvara sat upon the throne of Chauhan dynasty. They had uneventful reign. Someshvara was followed by his illustrious son Prithviraj III.
Prithviraj Chauhan III (1168-1192 A.D.): Prithviraj Chauhan is one of the most celebrated Hindu King of Ajmer and Delhi. His birth took place in 1149.
The Chauhan dynasty had long history of rivalry with the Chalukyas of Gujarat. However, Prithviraj decided to adopt the policy of neutrality in the War between King of Gujarat and Mohammed Ghori. He neither supported the Gujarat Kingdom nor Mohammed Ghori. The King of Gujarat inflicted a defeat on Mohammed Ghori.
Meanwhile, Prithviraj continued his policy of conquest and expansion of his empire. He also fought with the Chalukyan king and got some success.
In 1191, the First Battle of Tarain was fought between Prithviraj Chauhan and Mohammed Ghori in which the latter was completed defeated. But, Mohammed Ghori reappeared and the Second Battle of Tarain took place. Prithviraj was defeated and taken prisoner.
He was a great Hindu ruler of Delhi who died a hero’s death for country.
The Chauhana dynasty after Prithviraj Chauhan: The real fame of Prithviraj rests upon his struggle with Muhammad of Ghur. Mohammed Ghori followed up his victory by the conquest of Ajmer and Delhi. He placed the young son of Prithviraj as his vassal in Ajmer. But Hariraja, the brother of Prithviraj captured the throne of Ajmer and followed a policy of hostility. Qutubuddin Aibek invaded Ajmer and overthrew Hariraja and took the country. The Chauhan dynasty then retired to Ranthambhor and ruled there in diminishing glory. But in 1301, Ala-ud-din Khilji captured Ranthambhor and uprooted the last stronghold of Chauhan power.