Causes of Industrial Disputes in India
Industrial disputes refer to the conflicts between employers and workers. These conflicts take various forms of protest from the workers side like strikes, demonstrations, rally, etc. From the employer’s side, these disputes may take the shape of retrenchment, dismissals, lockouts, etc. The two most prominent forms of disputes are strikes and lockouts.
The important causes of industrial disputes in India are summarized below:
(1) The most important causes of industrial dispute seems to be economic. In India, the, standard of living of the industrial workers is very low. They live in a vicious circle of poverty. The workers usually demand higher wages due to prices of consumer’s goods. But the employer always refuses to increase the wage of the laborers. As a result, the workers have no other alternative but to confront the employer in order to fulfil their demands.
(2) Another cause of industrial dispute related to the internal conditions of the factories and mines. The employees always work in an unhealthy condition. There is very often no provision for ventilation, sanitation and so on. The employers are mostly indifferent to the working conditions of the laborers. Moreover, the employers often violate factory law as a result of which the workers suffer great hardship. The question of long hours of work without pay also leads to industrial disputes in India.
(3) In our economy, the insecurity of employment is largely responsible for labor unrest. The employers sometimes try to retrench or victimize workers without assigning any reason. This sort of vindictive attitude of the management induces the laborers to go on strike unless they are re-employed.
(4) It is said that the demand for profit and bonus often lead to industrial disputes in the country. The workers think that they are exploited by management. They realize that the employer makes demand profit in the form of bonus. Ultimately this leads to quarrel between the employer and the employees.
(5) Another cause of labor unrest in India is the question of rationalization. The management always stands for rationalization of the industry in order to reduce the cost of production. But the workers do not like it because it will throw them out of employment. So, they go on strike with a view to preventing rationalization in the industry in which they work.
(6) It is said that the management sometimes refuses recognize a trade union formed by the workers for obvious reasons. Again, very often workers in an industry go on strike in sympathy with the laborers of other industrial units.
(7) The political factor is also responsible for labor unrest in India. It is said that in India the workers are the playthings in the hands of the political parties. The unscrupulous political leaders exploit them in their own interest.
(8) Many have said workers now-a-days want to participate in the management of the industries. But the employers refuse to fulfil this particular demand of the employees for obvious reasons. This is a question of prestige on both sides (employers and employees) and strikes and lockouts become inevitable.