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Brief History of Qutb Shahi Dynasty

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Qutb Shahi Dynasty

The Qutb Shahi Dynasty of Golkonda Kingdom was one the Sultanates formed after the breakup of the Bahmani Kingdom.

Sultan Quli Qutb Shah (1518-1543)

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In 1518, Sultan Quli Qutb Shah, the Governor of Golconda asserted his independence and became the founder of Qutb Shahi Dynasty of Golkonda.

Sultan Quli Qutb Shah supported Bidar in its quarrels with Bijapur. He died in 1543. He was murdered at the instance of his son Jamsheed.

Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah (1543-1550)

Jamsheed who ruled for seven years only was engaged in a number of wars with Bijapur. He died in 1550 leaving the throne to his infant son, but the infant was deposed by his uncle Ibrahim who proclaimed himself the Sultan.

Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah Wali (1550-1580)

Ibrahim married the daughter of Hussain Nizam Shah I of Ahmednagar, and took a leading part in forming an alliance of the Deccan Sultans against Vijaynagar Empire. This resulted in the rout of the Vijayanagar forces at the Battle of Talikota in 1565. It was during his reign that Warangal was permanently annexed to the kingdom of Golconda.

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Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah (1580-1612)

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah was the founder of the city of Hyderabad. In 1589 he built a new city about 10 miles away from Golconda. He named it Bhaganagar after his Hindu mistress Bhagamati. Subsequently Bhaganagar was renamed Hyderabad. The important land mark of Hyderabad, Charminar was also constructed during this period. The next ruler Muhammad ruled from 1612 to 1626.

Abdullah Qutb Shah (1626-1672)

During the ruler of Abdullah Qutb Shah, the Golkonda kingdom was forced to accept the suzerainty of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in 1635. A year before this event i.e. in 1634, Abdullah issued the Golden Firman granting trade privileges to the English East India Company on the Andhra Coast.

The prime minister, Mir Jumla proved to be a very treacherous man. He entered into secret parleys with Aurangzeb, the Mughal viceroy of the Deccan. As a result, Aurangzeb invaded Golconda in 1655 and plundered the city of Hyderabad. Abdullah made peace with Aurangzeb by paying a huge indemnity. Abdullah was succeeded by his nephew Abdul Hasan Tana Shah in 1672.

Abul Hasan Qutb Shah (also Tana Shah) (1672-1687)

The Prime Minister of Abul Hasan was Akkanna, a Vaishnava Brahmin. Madanna, the brother of Akkanna was the commander in-chief of the army. In February, 1677, Abul Hasan entered into an alliance with Shivaji against Aurangzeb. On March 1677, Shivaji visited Hyderabad and was entertained lavishly by Tana Shah.

Aurangzeb was incensed by these acts. So he attacked Golconda in 1687. Golconda fort was gallantly defended by Abdur Razzaq. Even after seven months of siege, Aurangzeb could not take it. At last by recoursing to bribery he entered the fort. Abdur Razzaq fought bravely and refused to serve under Aurangzeb. Tana Shah was captured and imprisoned at Daulatabad.

The fall of Golconda fort in October 1687 marked the end of the Qutb Shahi dynasty. Golconda was annexed to the Mughal Empire.

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